How to extract RPM or DEB packages

RPM and DEB packages are both containers for other files. An RPM is some sort of cpio archive. On the other hand, a DEB file is a pure ar archive. So, it should be possible to unpack their contents using standard archiving tools, regardless of your distribution’s package format. Under normal conditions, you should use your distribution’s standard package manager, rpm or dpkg and their frontends, to manage those files. But, if you need to be more generic, here is how to do it.

RPM

For RPMs you need two command line utilities, rpm2cpio and cpio. Extracting the contents of the RPM package is a one step process:

rpm2cpio mypackage.rpm | cpio -vid

If you just need to list the contents of the package without extracting them, use the following:

rpm2cpio mypackage.rpm | cpio -vt

The -v option is used in order to get verbose output to the stdout. If you don’t need it, you can safely omit this switch. For more information about the cpio options, please refer to the cpio(1) manual page.

DEB

DEB files are ar archives, which contain three files:

  • debian-binary
  • control.tar.gz
  • data.tar.gz

As you might have already guessed, the needed archived files exist in data.tar.gz. It is also obvious that unpacking this file is a two-step process.

First, extract the aforementioned three files from the DEB file (ar archive):

ar vx mypackage.deb

Then extract the contents of data.tar.gz using tar:

tar -xzvf data.tar.gz

Or, if you just need to get a listing of the files:

tar -tzvf data.tar.gz

Again the -v option in both ar and tar is used in order to get verbose output. It is safe not to use it. For more information, read the man pages: tar(1) and ar(1).

If anyone knows a one step process to extract the contents of the data.tar.gz, I’d be very interested in it!

Update

As Jon suggested in the comment area, the contents of data.tar.gz can be extracted from the DEB package in a one step process as shown below:

ar p mypackage.deb data.tar.gz | tar zx

That will do it.

How to extract RPM or DEB packages by George Notaras, unless otherwise expressly stated, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2008 - Some Rights Reserved

About George Notaras

George Notaras is the editor of G-Loaded Journal, a technical blog about Free and Open-Source Software. George is a GNU/Linux enthusiast, a self-taught programmer and system administrator. He strongly believes that "knowledge is power" and has created this web site to share the IT knowledge and experience he has gained over the years with other people. George primarily uses CentOS and Fedora and spends some of his spare time developing open-source software. Follow George on Twitter: @gnotaras

26 responses on “How to extract RPM or DEB packages

  1. knud Permalink →

    Please also try these:
    ‘rpm -qpvl package.rpm’
    ‘rpm -qpvl package.rpm > textfile’
    ‘less package.rpm’
    ‘lesspipe… > textfile’
    ‘less package.deb’
    ‘lesspipe… package.deb > textfile’
    And of course The Midtnight Commander ‘mc’ will open both rpm and deb.
    Rgds

  2. Jon Permalink →

    One-liner to extract data.tar.gz:

    ar p package.deb data.tar.gz|tar zx

    1. znik Permalink →

      for unpack only data.tar.gz directly from deb:
      ar p package.deb data.tar.gz|tar xvzf –
      f – is strongly recommended because tar command have default archive file hardcoded into binary. of course this default can be changed by environment, but f – is the simplest way without calling env as envelop for setting temporary environment.

  3. Kilgore Trout Permalink →

    Is there a GUI program to do all this that will take any package and convert it to what you want?

    1. George Notaras Post authorPermalink →

      None that I know of. There is a command line tool though, called alien, which can convert packages between the RPM and DEB formats. Its use is very straightforward. I highly recommend you give it a shot.

  4. Benjamin Permalink →

    The easiest way to extract a Debian package is with dpkg-deb. To extract the content run “dpkg-deb –extract mypackage.deb foobar”. If you want to modify the package:

    dpkg-deb –extract mypackage.deb foobar
    dpkg-deb -e mypackage.deb foobar/DEBIAN
    modify files in foobar directory
    dpkg-deb -b foobar

    1. George Notaras Post authorPermalink →

      Hi Benjamin,

      Having used RPM-based distributions, I was not aware that it was so easy to modify the contents of a DEB package and then repackage the modified files. Thanks for the tip!

      As for the method of extracting the contents of RPM or DEB I describe in that post, it is meant to be a generic method without requiring any distribution specific tools, but generic archive managers.

      I had decided to write it because I once needed to extract a DEB package under CentOS; I cannot recall why.

      Thanks for stopping by.

  5. asfd Permalink →

    ar is rare to fine already installed. Please revise this to use dpkg-deb or at least show it as an option.

    dpkg-deb -x

  6. George Notaras Post authorPermalink →

    This article describes how to extract a DEB or RPM package using generic archive decompressors. The fact that utilities like rpm or dpkg are not used is intentional. Thanks

  7. George Notaras Post authorPermalink →

    Hi Jonathan. Thanks for pointing it out! The same mistake probably exists in several posts throughout the web site.

    It has been corrected in the current post. Thanks :-)

  8. toto Permalink →

    good tutorial and very clear description and how to solve my problem. Thank for your tutorial. My problem about how to extract rpm file is solve :)

  9. Eruva Permalink →

    It’s good to mention that ar is in binutils package.

    1. George Notaras Post authorPermalink →

      Hi and thanks for your feedback. The binutils package is installed by default even in minimal installations on RHEL, Fedora, CentOS and Scientific Linux, so it was kind of impossible for this package to be missing. Also the following command reveals the containing RPM package:

      yum provides /usr/bin/ar
      
  10. srm Permalink →

    What is the use of :

    debian-binary
    control.tar.gz

    in a .deb package. Dont we need to extract files in them too ?

  11. koofoos Permalink →

    Any way to convert .deb packages to .rpm and vice versa, without losing the post-install scripts?

  12. vamsi Permalink →

    @Benjamin, awesome!! That’s exactly what I was looking for. So I wanted to make few changes to the priority level in control file and your process is what I wanted.

    Thanks @George Notaras for posting good stuff.

  13. Mark Permalink →

    just came in very handy, my dpkg and tar binaries were incompatible (dpkg calling tar with an unknown option), so I couldn’t use the famed dpkg-deb, I guess this is a good reason to have another way to unpack these things.

    Got the tar.deb and unpacked it to get the newer tar binary, so my dpkg would work again.

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